What constitutes digital literacies is an interesting topic in contemporary learning environments. When I was teaching in a school I spent much energy trying to convince the “literacy team” that they needed to alter their definition and subsequent approach of literacy to incorporate digital literacies, in this way I was hoping to introduce a more inclusive use of ICT by a method of subterfuge.
At that stage digital literacies was a term that was merely talking about film and early stages of web literacies.
Doug Belshaw an educator who works for Mozilla when trying to answer the question of what constitutes digital literacies recently wrote ;
“My short answer to such a question would be that it is a ‘convenient hypocrisy’. By this I mean that it is a term used ambiguously (both consciously and unconsciously) by people with multitude of different backgrounds and intentions. However, given that it is a term that has entered common parlance, I would hope that this thesis clarifies at least three things. First of all, I have argued that speaking of a plurality of ‘digital literacies’ makes more sense than endless attempts to define ‘one literacy to rule them all’. Secondly, I have suggested the essential elements that should make up any contextualised and emergent definition of digital literacies. Finally, I have attempted to argue that the process of coming up with a definition of what constitutes ‘digital literacies’ is at least as important as the outcome of that process.” http://dmlcentral.net/blog/doug-belshaw/ontology-web-why-i-learned-stop-worrying-and-love-learning-standards
I agree with many of the points Doug raises. The term is now almost undefinable and therefore of so much more importance from an educationalist perspective – particularly to my old literacy team.
If we just talk about films: Peter Greenaway the highly respected British film director recently said that he believed the traditional movie was a dead art form.
It is one based on the narrative structure of the 19th century novel – and this template gets repeated over and over and over again. There has been little to no progression in the format since its beginnings. In this it strongly parallels opera as a story telling devise and a medium of entertainment – it is now viewed as a quant entertainment with sentimental values but of no real importance in regards to its artistic and cultural value.
One of the reasons for this is its inability to adapt rapidly in much the same way as the rest of technology-based art forms have.
For example film is extremely narrative based, generally linear and highly dictatorial in approach – by that I mean it is one way. Everything is imposed upon the audience, from on high. The audience is being told the story, they are told what to think, what to feel, when to cry when to laugh etc. Everything in the movie making process is aimed it this. The music written supports the emotion the director is looking for and further attempts to manipulate the audience into feeling that emotion. The same applies with the lighting, editing, camera angels and so on.
There is no room in for the audience to actively participate in any way rather than just sit and passively go along with what they are being told to do. Now this can be very enjoyable for many people but I would argue that most people have progressed from this form of entertainment/learning and are now looking at the ability to have a say themselves, or be involved in the process.
This is the space that digital games become very, very interesting – especially from a learning perspective.
There are many games that fall into the same category as the traditional movie. The narrative is entirely predetermined and the gamer must merely do as there told, but there are also many games that have moved well away from this.
Games such as L.A Noir or Assassin’s Creed do follow a narrative. The difference is instead of passively watching it unfold; the gamer can become part of it. They adopt a character within the narrative and play out the role, often times being forced to make choices that will influence how the original story plays out – much like a choose your own adventure book but a lot more immersive. Another game that does this and is great for younger kids is Little Big Planet. These narratives or stories are generally very complex and nested within other existing narratives and .can take months to unfold. However there is still a fair amount of control within these games – the settings, places, etc. are all predetermined as they are all set within a particular storyline.
When interviewing a 14 year old boy on why he liked games he said “because I get to choose what I want to do, unlike school where we are constantly told do this or that in games that I play I don’t just have to go a kill everyone to move to the next level, I can decide which way to go, how to deal with it. It’s a lot more fun having a bit of control.” This is also referred to as free roaming within a game. Batman Arkham City is one game that plays in this way – you can do the missions or “simply go in wonder around and play your own thing, play your own story.”
This notion of perceived control is also an interesting one from a teaching perspective. Recently when interviewing a fantastic teacher, Roland Gesthuizen he stated that “ you need to give choice to students but not too much choice…If you give to much choice people inevitably make no choice or the worst one “
To me games using this model are the natural evolution from movies – they have narrative, they have cut scenes using traditional visual techniques but moving on they allow for reediting of the narrative in a controlled fashion.
Beyond that and also of great interest to education is the game that is fully immersive and has almost no predetermined narrative structure. This includes games like Minecraft and Gary’s Mod and to a certain extent Disney’s Infinity..
These games are providing a framework for the player to enter and then leaving it up to the individual’s creativity to do whatever they want.
When recently watching a collection of students playing Gary’s Mod they were collectively interacting and communicating with each other, they were building there own characters, they were inventing there own games within the game and moreso they were inventing their own narrative within the games they were playing – that is narrative within narrative. Look at all the potential literacies learning that could be leveraged off this space.
This is an example of the game makers understanding this generation and providing them with autonomy, the ability to be self-directed and beyond that providing them the ability to be highly web connected. These three concepts are what our education system needs to understand and embrace.
To quote Australian educator – Richard Olsen – How are our education systems to respond to students as autonomous, self-directed web connected learners?
That’s a fascinating piece Kynan. You cover so much ground in so little space! Your thoughts on games as a “natural evolution from movies” are persuasive. They help explain why I find games more engaging than increasingly conventionalised movies – so engaging that I have to ration myself carefully to avoid excess!
I also find Doug Belshaw’s thoughts on “digital literacies” thought provoking. I especially like his line in the piece you link to where he describes Mozilla’s efforts in defining Web Literacy Standards: “We’re defining the skills and competencies in terms of verbs rather than nouns – in other words, focusing on ability to actually do something rather than just know how to do it.”
That seems to encapsulate an important element of what we mean when we talk about “twenty-first century learning” (admittedly another term like “digital literacies” that has the potential to be used in “conscious and unconscious ambiguity” or as cover for “convenient hypocrisy”). More and more we need to think in terms of students abilities to do. Our students need to create, collaborate, connect, curate, inquire, innovate, inspire, share, construct, and solve, to list but a few useful verbs. These aren’t things they need “to know”, they are things they need “to do”.
Thanks for sharing your thoughts.
Thanks John for your comments, Very interesting take you’ve got regarding the to do statements.
That really goes top the heart of what knowledge actually is and how our education systems deal with that.
Is it information or is it something that needs to be embodied through experience?
And yes I agree the term digital literacy is such a broad and increasingly confusing one.
This is a thought provoking post. I agree with John, it fits so much in one space. There was a discussion of much the same topic, the move towards gaming and so forth, in the most recent ‘Future Tense’ episode on Radio National, which suggested that gaming is integral to who we are, even arguing that things such as Twitter fit this mould in many respects.
I am really intrigued as to how you think that English needs to adapt to include many of the attributes associated with ‘digital literacy’. Apt of the discussion out there seems to be associated with ‘transliteracy’, if that is the right term. I feel that at the very least that it needs to involve more collaboration where students are able to intersect and entwine with other differing ideas. Definitely got my thinking.
Thanks Aaron for your comments. Im not sure what you mean by transliteracy, that is a new term to me. Can you explain what you men by that term?
Transmedia is a term that has been spoken of a little bit especially in the area of education. Is it the same thing?
Dan Donahoo is one who writes and speaks about it in quite interesting ways – worth a read. http://geekdad.com/author/ddonahoo/ is his blog
Not sure what the difference between ‘Transliteracy’ and ‘Transmedia’ are, they are probably the same thing. Here is one definition:
Transliteracy is the ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools and media from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio and film, to digital social networks. Thomas, S. with Joseph, C., Laccetti, J., Mason, B., Mills, S., Perril, S., and Pullinger, K. Transliteracy: Crossing divides, First Monday, Volume 12 Number 12 – 3 December 2007 http://nlabnetworks.typepad.com/transliteracy/
I always wondered where Dan published, I read all his stuff at http://danieldonahoo.com/?page_id=291 didn’t know about Geekdad, will add it to my feed.
Thanks for the push toward participatory engagement. In my Good Stories class, I do this in at least three ways: 1) include multiple versions of each story, 2) work with oral, print, & digital discourses, and 3) mediate across multiple levels of explanation: archetypal, local, personal, & particular (to adapt slightly the terms explicated by Bryan Boyd in Origin of Stories). We construct digital media projects that require authentic images, meaning ones the producer “owns” instead of grabbing from Google. The discourses often take points of resonance and venture more into explorations, amplifications, & imaginations rather than traditional narratives.
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